Zagreb under the sign of Habsburg
The fact that the Order of St George - a European order of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine - held its Order Day in Zagreb almost exactly one hundred years to the day after the end of constitutional relations between Croatia and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy enormously strengthened the symbolic power of the event. In a completely different way from what could have been expected in 1918, today's Croatia feels more deeply connected than ever to the monarchy and the House of Habsburg. This was also noticeable on that Day of the Order at the end of October. Habsburg is not yesterday. In Croatia Habsburg is present and future.
How closely one feels connected to the former ruling family already became apparent on the day before the Day of the Order (26 October). It was not without reason that the meeting of the Council of the Order took place in the Museum Mimara of all places. It was precisely here that HIRH Archduke Karl of Habsburg-Lothringen, the Grand Master of the Order, set up his office during the Yugoslavian wars. His merits for the recognition of the state of Croatia at that time have not been forgotten.
In the morning hours of the following day (27 October) it was then time: 300 ladies and knights of the order gathered for the line-up on St. Mark's Square, i.e. directly in front of the seat of the Croatian state government and in front of the Romanesque St. Mark's Church, one of the oldest architectural monuments of the city, which in the time of the monarchy was redesigned in neo-Gothic style. After the Emperor's hymn was heard and the Grand Master was informed, the assembled members of the Order moved in a formation towards the University Church of St. Catherine, where the festive Mass and the subsequent investiture took place. The celebrant was the Rector of Zagreb Cathedral, Msgr Josip Kuhtić. The University Church was selected for the celebratory Mass on the proposal of Cardinal Josip Bozanić, Archbishop of Zagreb. During the Turkish sieges the church was destroyed twice and rebuilt in 1632 with the donations of the Croatian nobility as the most beautiful sacral baroque building of the city. The Mass was accompanied by liturgical singing in Croatian, Latin and Old Slavic. Around 60 postulants and 5 Dames were accepted into the order at the investiture. The Order now has almost 700 members.
After a cosy lunch in the restaurant Johann Franck, to which also the Croatian president Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović came, the Day of the Order ended - like every time - in a Gala Dinner in the evening, which took place this time in the Emerald Hall of the Hotel Westin. Besides the Government of the Order - above all the Grand Master SKKH Karl von Habsburg, Procurator Baron Vinzenz von Stimpfl-Abele and Chancellor Stefan Schermaier - an emissary of the Croatian President, Mate Granić, as well as the Deputy Minister of Defence, Petar Mihatov, were present at the gala dinner.
On this occasion, the knights of the Croatian Commanderies presented their Grand Master with a very special gift: Knowing the Archduke's preference for documents from the monarchy period, they had a reprint of the coronation diploma of the Blessed Emperor Charles of Austria made in the Croatian State Archives, which they now presented to Archduke Charles. But even the Grand Master did not arrive empty-handed. In return, he gave the two Croatian commanders the coat of arms of the dynasty and the personal coat of arms of Emperor Franz Joseph I and Emperor Charles IV, made by a Knight of the Order. Another Knight of the Order presented the Grand Master with a stamp collection dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the naval battle of Lissa. The celebration lasted until late into the night.
This grand meeting of the Order didn’t go unnoticed by the Croatian public. All media, from radio and television to the most important daily newspapers, dedicated detailed reports to the Day of the Order.
It was a really successful day for the Order and Emperor Franz Joseph I would have said: "It was very beautiful, I was very pleased”.
Ordenstag Wien, April 21st 2018
"We send a message of unity out into the world"
Brightened by the morning sunshine and largely deserted, the Vienna inner district presented itself on Saturday morning. Only a few joggers and the early risers among the tourists crossed the inner courtyard of the Hofburg at 7 am, when 13 new dames and 58 postulants of the Order of St. George, as well as the traditional regiments took part. The crowd of people curiously watched by individual passers-by grew within half an hour to about 450 persons, because the ladies and knights of the order were gathering in rows of four behind the postulants. At the end of the procession, the order government lined up, headed by the Grand Master S.k.k.H. Karl of Habsburg and the Deputy Grand Master S.k.k.H. Georg of Habsburg.
The morning silence soon gave way to the marching music of the approaching Regiment Chapel IR4, the traditional chapel of the Order of St. George. After the obligatory report to the Grand Master, the performance of the Imperial Anthem and other marches, was followed by a march in formation through the “Graben” to St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna after eight o'clock.
"The fascination of St. George knows no bounds"
The following service in the cathedral was attended by an estimated 800 visitors. In his sermon, Military Bishop Werner Freistätter emphasized three essential aspects of the work of Saint George - the patron saint of the Order. The ecumenical dimension of the saint executed under Emperor Diocletian in 303 is remarkable. Thus the martyr was venerated very early in unusually many regions, among them the Near East, Ethiopia, Egypt, in the Merovingian Franconian Empire, Italy and soon also in the German-speaking area. "The fascination of St. George knows no bounds", Freistätter underlined. In the Roman Catholic Church today he is regarded as a saint as well as in the Orthodox Church, and even in Islam he is regarded as an important prophet.
Christian chivalry is another essential dimension of Saint George: "The knightly ideal is characterized by helpfulness, goodness and a commitment to faith.” It also requires the "moderate use of force of arms", especially in this day and age. Those in need can obtain protection and help from the Holy One. Last but not least, Freistätter also emphasized the martyrdom of George: "He gave his own life for faith. This is an incentive to follow Christ wherever one is. In all situations it is necessary to draw courage, strength and hope from faith.
Admission of four new honorary knights
The festive investiture followed, at the beginning of which four personalities were initially appointed honorary knights, namely the well-known Viennese cathedral priest Anton "Toni" Faber, the mayor of Graz Siegfrid Nagl, the former Bulgarian president Rossen Plewneliew and the former governor of Lower Austria Erwin Pröll. Afterwards, the postulants came before the Grand Master after calling their name and were invested. By the end of the investiture the order had grown to a total of 700 ladies and knights.
At summerly temperatures the members of the order took a stand on St. Stephen's Square, which has become very busy in the meantime. The march finally led to Palais Coburg, where 450 guests gathered for lunch in the historic casemates.
The revival of Central European identity
After the afternoon break, the final highlight of the day was the gala dinner in the Ceremonial Hall of the Hofburg. Archduke Karl von Habsburg spoke to 400 guests about the year of commemoration - 100 years at the end of the First World War. Since then Austria's development has been remarkable, the Grand Master emphasised: "Contrary to all predictions from all sides, Austria has not perished, but has developed fantastically, has grown together and today plays a central role in Central Europe".
The Archduke was also highly satisfied with the development of the Order. "Today we are undoubtedly able to revive the Central European identity. You can see it in our commanderies and our growth." The knights would have to defend their values, their country and their continent. "Some of our new, newly invested knights are on the front line. That is why I would particularly like to welcome two of my friends from Ukraine who just became invested here. They are two highly decorated generals, both of whom have rendered outstanding service in defending their European country against Russia. I am glad that you are both here," said the Grand Master to roaring applause.
"I have a dream”
Archduke Karl was equally pleased with the investiture of the former President of Bulgaria, Rossen Plewneliev.
"Today we are experiencing several crises and conflicts," said Plewneliev in his subsequent speech. Some currently speak of two crises in Europe, others of five or seven. "I think we have eleven crises." Rossen Plewneliev mentioned among other things the conflicts with Russia and around Ukraine, the situation of Greece, the Brexite, terrorism and the new flare-up of nationalism.
But the pessimism did not stop there. "We have come together to share our passion for what we want to leave our children. I have a dream and I want to share it with all of you now. If we resolve even one of these eleven crises in our own way, in a European way, we can then signal to everyone: We can solve all problems."
A unique peace project
The gathering this evening, the "passion for Europe shared by all of us, sends a message of unity into the world. We know what used to go wrong in Europe and we know how to get a grip on it. We can be proud to have learned our lessons from history." Plewneliev underlined that the founding fathers of the European Union were important role models. "Today we can prove to everyone that the European dream is a unique peace project. The world is watching us. It's time to find our confidence again."
Baron Vinzenz von Stimpfl-Abele, the Prokurator, also briefly said: "Knights are also known for being able to celebrate properly, and I think we have more than enough reasons for this after such a successful convent. The day started in the early morning hours should not end less late. The party lasted until after midnight.
Go-ahead for intensified cooperation in Central Europe
Central Europe has been growing together again since 1989. The Central European countries now want to intensify their cooperation even further, especially with a focus on security and migration. This was the tenor at the "First Central European Security Conference" on May 15, in Vienna's Park Hyatt Hotel, attended by more than 150 personalities, including ministers, state secretaries and numerous diplomats from Central European countries. In the future, the conference initiated by Austria is to take place annually in order to strengthen transnational cooperation in Central Europe and to create security awareness for the Central European region.
"There are problems that affect our continent and that cannot be solved by large European countries alone," said Markus Tschank, Member of the National Council, referring to the migration crisis in 2015 and 2016. Mr. Tschank is President of the Institute for Security Policy, which organized this meeting on the initiative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Defense. Partners were the Order of St. George, the Pan-European Movement Austria, SECI (Southeast European Cooperation Initiative) and the University of Vienna.
"There's upside potential"
Initial cooperation efforts in Central Europe need to be further intensified, Tschank said. "There's upside potential." The Member of Parliament is convinced: Europe will in future integrate itself in security policy in such a way that "its primary task must not consist in ever more deeply integrated bureaucratic structures, but in ever more developed security services for its citizens".
Defence Minister Mario Kunasek also has high hopes for cooperation in the region, sending a video message to the participants, as he was in Croatia himself: "Over the centuries, the Central European region has shown how unity through diversity can function. Now forward-looking and joint measures are needed for the security of the citizens of Central Europe. The Central European Security Conference would close "a long overdue gap" here. Minister of Infrastructure Norbert Hofer was also optimistic: "I am firmly convinced that this is a strong start for a close cooperation in the sense of strengthening what is important to us, namely peace, freedom and prosperity in Austria, Central Europe and the European Union".
Influenced by the House of Habsburg to this day
Central Europe was defined by Foreign Minister Karin Kneissl as "a space in which the history of the Habsburg monarchy unfolded". A "multi-layered and at the same time common culture of living" is characteristic for this space. Kneissl quoted the publicist Wolfgang Broer as saying that "a Ladin and Friulian, a Croatian and Slovenian, a Moravian and a Bavarian, a Slovak and a Triestine are associated with an imaginary centre that cannot be located in London, Paris or Moscow". Today, the countries of Central Europe are close friends and partners of Austria in its commitment "to a stronger EU in the areas of security and defence". Kneissl also quoted SKKH Otto von Habsburg: "The further we push the borders of freedom eastwards, the safer the middle will be".
Among the participants of the subsequent panel discussion was the deputy Grand Master of the Order of St. George and Special Ambassador of Hungary, SKKH Georg von Habsburg. "Central Europe has not been pushed together, but has grown organically," he emphasized. Even today one could still learn from the Habsburg Monarchy: "Only in the Austro-Hungarian army were there military bishops, military imams and military rabbis who prayed together for the success of the army. This has not been forgotten in the Southeastern European states. Now it is of primary interest - especially in view of our security - to bring the Southeastern European states "to the EU as quickly as possible".
The shock effect of the refugee crisis
Autumn 2015 left a lasting impression, as especially the discussants from Austria's neighbouring countries made clear. It was agreed that an uncontrolled influx like that must not be repeated. Vesna Györkös Žnidar, Slovenia's Minister of the Interior, was very clear: "Scenarios like 2015 and 2016 are unacceptable". To this day, the EU's measures against illegal immigration are still inadequate. "This situation threatens the foundations of the EU." When more than 1.5 million migrants came to the EU via a Western Balkans route, it became clear "that the EU as a whole is not up to the challenge". Žnidar, however, praised the "excellent cooperation" at that time with the then Austrian Minister of the Interior Johanna Mikl-Leitner.
Lilyana Pavlova, Minister for Bulgaria's EU Council Presidency, found similar words: "Chaos reigned two years ago". Countries bordering the crisis regions felt abandoned. This must change. "Otherwise, the next crisis will come and we'll be unprepared again." And: "We no longer want to discuss, but act."
Erhard Busek, special coordinator of the SECI (Southeast European Cooperation Initiative), also criticised the EU on this point: "There is no mechanism in the EU to deal with this problem". The instruments were missing. Developing them would, of course, cost more money, which the states would then have to be prepared to pay.
"Arrogance towards Eastern and Central Europe"
Busek also sharply criticized Western Europe's current "arrogance towards Eastern and Central Europe". He did not agree with the Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán on some issues either, but he was right in accusing the EU of "violating Schengen in 2015, when migration took place boundlessly without people being recorded". Busek also complained that Central and Eastern Europeans were outnumbered in the EU leadership. The former communist countries had a different history, but one could clarify the differences "in the personal conversation and in the argument, but unfortunately this argument takes place far too little.
The still "poor knowledge of Central Europe" among the population is "an educational and a media problem". A great deal could also be done in the area of infrastructure. "In the Habsburg Monarchy it took four hours by train from Vienna to Krakow. Today there are eight." In the past it was also possible to travel from Vienna to Trieste by train.
Europe must do more
No participant doubted that a new wave of migration would soon come to Europe. "The question is not whether it will come, rather when it will come," emphasised Georg von Habsburg. One does not know how the situation of Christians in Egypt will develop. A changed political situation could immediately trigger a new wave of refugees there. Habsburg also wants the EU to be much more active: "When I think back to the economic crisis and Greece, an EU summit took place every two weeks. I would like the EU to address the issue of migration just as intensively."
Concrete proposals were also discussed during the discussion. The Bulgarian Minister Lilyana Povlova presented a new mechanism within the EU developed by Bulgaria during the Council Presidency, on which the European states still have to agree. "The Bulgarian approach is aimed at prevention through new field offices." This mechanism could be proactive, informed and acted on time, with the help of new financial resources and technical support, when another wave of refugees enters Europe. The budget for external border protection and for Frontex is also to be massively increased. Povlova hopes for an agreement before the end of the Bulgarian Council Presidency. Then the Austrian Presidency could pick up where it left off. Povlova praised the excellent cooperation with Austria, which has set similar priorities for its EU Presidency. "It needs a Europe that protects." And: "United we are strong."
Regional cooperation, external border protection, asylum
Slovenian Minister Vesna Györkös Žnidar also made it clear: "We need regional cooperation. National measures alone are not enough." Furthermore, an "effective external border protection" is essential, without which Schengen cannot function. To this day, the EU's external borders are "inadequately protected". Moreover, "the asylum system must not be used as a migration route to the EU". Migrants should be stopped at the external borders. Once they have entered European soil, it will be extremely difficult to get rid of them. Meanwhile there are tens of thousands of people "who do not fulfil the conditions for a legal stay in the country. They go from one country to another. This is a serious challenge to our security. The EU must find an answer to this."
"We have a long way to go," underlined Petar Mihatov, Croatian Deputy Minister of Defence Policy. New Balkan routes are currently being developed. We must be vigilant. Mihatov also said: "We should act now instead of waiting for things to get out of hand." So far, Europe had not been very well positioned in the area of security: "For a long time, defence was mainly in the hands of NATO". Now there is a rethinking. Mihatov sees positive developments here. In the future, an effective division of labour between NATO and the EU is conceivable. It is important to know what to expect from the EU and what to expect from NATO.
Europe's geopolitical position in the world
Markus Tschank hopes that Central European cooperation can also compensate for the current shortcomings of the EU: Since the mechanisms in the EU are currently lacking to master the challenges of migration, the small states in Central Europe would have to "move together, create their own platforms and develop their own mechanisms. That's the only way to fill that gap."
At the same time, however, Tschank sees the EU as a whole as called upon to strengthen Europe's position in the world geopolitically: "The era of automatic interest building with the USA is over," he said, referring to President Trump's new US foreign policy ("America first"). "Europe is now more on its own." Minister of Infrastructure Hofer also stated: "The EU is becoming increasingly important to us in its importance. As individual member states, I do not believe we can survive in this global competition of superpowers."
Foreign Minister Kneissl, among others, underlined that a well cooperating Central Europe can and should also strengthen Europe. She referred to the new book by Erhard Busek and Emil Brix "Central Europe revisited: Why Europe's future is decided in Central Europe". The central thesis is: "Central Europe is the future of Europe". Kneissl stated: "If we take this thesis as the basis of our discussion, then we bear the responsibility not only for our own safety. Central Europe needs Europe and Europe needs Central Europe."